The book was originally co-published in 2006 by ABC with the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. It was written by Wendy Applequist, PhD, associate curator at the Missouri Botanical Garden’s William L. Brown Center, and illustrated with botanically accurate black-and-white line drawings by artist Barbara Alongi.
Accurate identification of the correct genus and species of botanical raw materials is the first step in quality control of botanical preparations. While several methods of identification are addressed in the introduction—including macroscopic taxonomic identification, microscopy of plant cells, chemical analysis of plant constituents, and molecular analysis of the plant’s DNA—it is Dr. Applequist’s opinion that macroscopic analysis of whole plants and plant parts (when possible) is often a preferred method of species identification because it is quick and relatively inexpensive.
The drawings by Ms. Alongi emphasize various morphological features of plant parts to aid in the identification process. In some cases (e.g., to estimate the actual size of a plant part, or to illustrate small details), such drawings can be more useful than actual photographs.
“ABC is pleased to be able to make this important book available to its members, particularly those in academic analytical research and in the herb industry,” noted ABC Founder and Executive Director Mark Blumenthal. “Because many botanical raw materials used in the current herb industry are either cut plant parts (e.g., for use as teas) or powders (to be made into capsules or tablets), many companies never receive and process whole plants or whole plant parts. In such cases, microscopy, chemical analysis, and/or genetic (DNA) testing are required analytical methods. But for growers, wildcrafters, collectors, processors, and others who deal with whole plants and their whole parts, this manual is a highly valuable quality control resource.”
Part 1 of the text provides a succinct discussion of the main morphological features of medicinal plants; practical plant identification, including necessary tools and how to deal with dried plant materials; botanical nomenclature and its importance in the identification process; and a description of the format of the botanical entries included in the book.
Part 2 provides a detailed macroscopic description of each of the 124 plants included. Ordered alphabetically by Latin binomial, each entry includes the standardized common name per the American Herbal Products Association’s Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition, other common names, family, a brief taxonomic representation, plant parts in commerce, a description of the plant and key morphological characteristics, organoleptic characteristics such as taste and odor, information on potential adulteration, references, and botanical illustrations. Each plant entry a downloadable PDF for ease of use.
“Morphological identification of unprocessed botanicals, when it is feasible, is the most rigorous possible form of authentication and the lowest-cost and quickest,” said Applequist. “I hope that ABC’s making this work available online will help to encourage people who work with herbs to develop the skill of old-fashioned botanical identification.”
Stefan Gafner, PhD, ABC’s chief science officer, added: “Macroscopic identification is an essential step in the identification of whole or cut crude herbal materials. Visual inspection not only helps to authenticate the material, but it also enables the detection of excess amounts of foreign matter such as dirt or sand, and improperly handled material that is rotten or filthy. Resources that help with the training and education of analysts in macroscopic analysis are scarce, and, as such, this is a very valuable book and one of the few texts in which information on macroscopic identification of many commercial botanical ingredients is gathered in one place.”
An appendix contains general references, a glossary that defines botanical terms, and illustrations of common leaf and flower characteristics. Finally, an index is included to facilitate easy access to the materials.