Because the brain controls almost all of the functions of the human body, injury or illness to the brain can affect many different parts of the body. Brain disorders, which may be inherited or caused by infections, and head injuries can affect the way the brain works and upset the daily activities of the rest of the body.
The nervous system is the body's communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain and the spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of nerves. Together, the CNS and PNS control every function of the body, from breathing and blinking to memorizing facts for a test. Nerves from the spinal cord branch outward to the rest of the body. Sensory nerves gather information from the environment and send that information to the spinal cord, which then speeds the message to the brain. The brain makes sense of that message and fires off a response. Motor neurons deliver instructions from the brain to the rest of the body.
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