Among the vitamin E forms tested, gamma-tocotrienol was found to be most effective in inhibiting proliferation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, cells treated with 20μM gamma-tocotrienol for 24 hours had significantly elevated levels of ROS and significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential indicating cell death, compared to other vitamin E forms. These results suggest that gamma-tocotrienol induces fat cells apoptosis by up-regulating ROS production and down-regulating mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner.
The authors opined that gamma-tocotrienol causes disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and increases ROS generation, releasing cytochrome C into the cytosol, and triggering caspase-3 activation in 3T3-L1 cells that ultimately lead to fat cell death.
Furthermore, gamma-tocotrienol causes apoptosis of fat cells by increasing expression of death receptor proteins, down regulating anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) protein, up regulating pro-apoptotic (Bax) protein, activating caspase-3 and PPAR cleavage. Gamma-tocotrienol also inhibits the differentiation of fat cells via down regulation of ERK protein (essential for adipocyte differentiation and proliferation) of the MAPK pathway.
“This particular study further shows that gamma-tocotrienol is the most effective form of vitamin E in reducing fat cell numbers via regulating specific signaling pathways. Tocomin palm tocotrienol complex contains a very high level of gamma-tocotrienol, which underscores the benefit of using it as a natural supplement in managing obesity,” explained WH Leong, vice president of Carotech Inc.
For more information: www.carotech.net