The findings shed light on how resveratrol impacts neurological processes. According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, depression and anxiety disorders affect 16 and 40 million people, respectively, in the U.S.
“Resveratrol may be an effective alternative to drugs for treating patients suffering from depression and anxiety disorders,” said Ying Xu, MD, PhD, co-lead author and research associate professor in the UB School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.
The study was also led by Xiaoxing Yin, PhD, professor at Xuzhou Medical University in China.
Resveratrol, which has been linked to a number of health benefits, is a compound found in the skin and seeds of grapes and berries. While research has identified resveratrol to have antidepressant effects, the compound’s relationship to phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), an enzyme influenced by the stress hormone corticosterone, was unknown.
Corticosterone regulates the body’s response to stress. Too much stress, however, can lead to excessive amounts of the hormone circulating in the brain and, ultimately, the development of depression or other mental disorders.
These unknown physiological relationships make drug therapy complex. Current antidepressants instead focus on serotonin or noradrenaline function in the brain, but only one-third of patients with depression enter full remission in response to these medications, said Xu.
In a study on mice, researchers revealed that PDE4, induced by excessive amounts of corticosterone, causes depression- and anxiety-like behavior.
The enzyme lowers cyclic adenosine monophosphate—a messenger molecule that signals physiological changes such as cell division, change, migration and death—in the body, leading to physical alterations in the brain.
Resveratrol displayed neuroprotective effects against corticosterone by inhibiting the expression of PDE4. The research lays the groundwork for the use of the compound in novel antidepressants.
Additional UB investigators include visiting scholar Xia Zhu and graduate student Victor Zheng in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and James O’Donnell, PhD, dean and professor of the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, whose research is focused on identifying novel molecular targets that mediate antidepressant, anti-anxiety and memory-enhancing effects on behavior.